A primer seals the pores in porous surfaces such as timber and forms a key (roughness) to produce adequate adhesion for subsequent coatings. Primers are available for specific surfaces or can be all-purpose. However, bare plaster should always be primed with a proprietary primer; alternatively use diluted emulsion mixed to a ratio of 1 part water to 4 parts paint. Primers can be applied using a brush, roller or pad.
Applied to clean metal before the topcoat, a rust-neutralising primer will protect ferrous and non-ferrous metals from rust.
Problems with mould are recognisable by patches of black, brown or grey spots on the surface and often occur in rooms that are damp or receive little or no sunlight. This problem can easily be remedied with an application of fungicide. When the spores are dead, brush them away and apply another coat of fungicide before painting.
Alternatively, you can use a diluted solution of household bleach mixed to a ratio of 1 part bleach and 3 parts water. Wash the affected area with the solution and then rinse the surface thoroughly. When applying fungicide or the bleach solution always wear rubber gloves and goggles.
There are basically three types of topcoat paint: emulsion, eggshell and gloss. However, gloss and eggshell paints are also available as non-drip paints.
A hardwearing paint with a high level of light reflection, gloss paint can also be water or oil-based. But although water-based gloss is easier to apply and does not yellow with age, it is not as hardwearing nor does it produce the shine of an oil-based gloss. Gloss paint can be used on wood and metal, inside or out, and one coat on top of an undercoat is usually sufficient to produce a quality finish.
Whether using gloss or eggshell paint the best finish is achieved when applied with a brush, which should be cleaned in white spirit if using an oil-based paint, or water and detergent if using a water-based paint.
A quick drying, water based-paint that resists cracking and peeling. Avoid applying in damp or humid conditions, as the paint will not dry satisfactorily.
Generally used on rendered or pebbledash exterior walls, masonry paints can be smooth or textured. Smooth masonry paints cover a wider area than textured masonry paints. But textured paint is ideal for covering up minor imperfections such as hairline cracks up to 2mm (1/16 in). Masonry paints can be applied using a brush, roller or spray gun.
Masonry paintbrushes should be 100mm-150mm (4in-6in) wide with coarse bristles. Apply the paint to the wall with vertical strokes followed by horizontal strokes. On very rough textured walls a banister brush can be used.
There is also a reinforced masonry paint which has a fine powdered aggregate added to produce an extremely weatherproof textured finish.
This is a bituminous, aluminium paint suitable for the protection of steel, asphalt and bituminous roof coverings. Solar reflective paint as its name suggests will reflect the sun's heat, reducing the build up of heat in the rooms below. This type of paint is quick drying and only requires one coat.
A radiator bleed valve is situated on one side at the top of the radiator. The valve is loosened with a special key.
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